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Since he has been working in Florence, currently presiding over the Chiropractic Association in Paris. Belig has co-written a book published in Italy about the prevention of cranial-cervical-mandibular disorders. Applied Kinesiology A. The inventor of this method was Dr.

What is AK? | ICAK-USA

George Goodheart, an American chiropractor, man of amazing curiosity and culture. His research gave birth to A. David Leaf,continues the research and teaching of A. In synthesis, it can be said that specific muscle testing allows studying the central state of integration of the nervous system and its ability to respond to stimulus. The weakness observed in muscle testing needs to be interpreted by the clinician in accordance with other examination and instrumental data.

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Clinical A. The usefulness of A. Note: Applied kinesiology should be distinguished from kinesiology biomechanics , which is the scientific study of movement. AK proponents claim that nutritional deficiencies, allergies, and other adverse reactions to foods or nutrients can be detected by having the patient chew or suck on them or by placing them on the tongue so that the patient salivates.

Some practitioners advise that the test material merely be held in the patient's hand or placed on another part of the body. A few even perform "surrogate testing" in which the arm strength of a parent is tested to determine problems in a child held by the parent.

According to a book for the general public written with help from two leading chiropractic AK practitioners:. The practicing AK is a graduate chiropractor who can explain to you how your glands and organs appear to be functioning with specific muscle tests. He can suggest nutrition to help improve various conditions, and he can demonstrate with your muscles that you probably need particular nutrients.

He can correct problems in your spine and in joints, and can stretch or compress muscles to improve your structural condition. He may massage certain junctures of nerve, lymph, blood, and acupuncture meridians to stimulate glandular or systemic activity.

Applied Kinesiology is Bunk

He can advise you on how to stay healthy and he will pay particular attention to your posture and your feet. He can offer an excellent second opinion if you are under a physician's care, are seeing a chiropractor who is not an applied kinesiologist, or if you have been in an accident [5]. Many muscle-testing proponents assert that nutrients tested in these various ways will have an immediate effect: "good" substances will make specific muscles stronger, whereas "bad" substances will cause weaknesses that "indicate trouble with the organ or other tissue on the same nerve, vascular, nutrition, etc.

If a patient is diagnosed as having a liver disturbance and the associated pectoralis major [chest muscle] tests weak, have the patient chew a substance that may help the liver, such as vitamin A. Finding a "weak" muscle supposedly enables the practitioner to pinpoint illness in the corresponding internal organs in the body. For example, a weak muscle in the chest might indicate a liver problem, and a weak muscle near the groin might indicate "adrenal insufficiency.

If the muscle tests "stronger," the substance supposedly can remedy problems in the corresponding body parts.

Applied Kinesiology - AK

Testing is also claimed to indicate which nutrients are deficient. If a weak muscle becomes stronger after a nutrient or a food high in the nutrient is chewed, that supposedly indicates "a deficiency normally associated with that muscle. According to this theory, when a muscle tests "weak," the provocative substance is bad for the patient. AK "treatment" may include special diets, food supplements, acupressure finger pressure on various parts of the body , and spinal manipulation [7].

Goodheart states that AK techniques can also be used to evaluate nerve, vascular, and lymphatic systems; the body's nutritional state; the flow of "energy" along "acupuncture meridians"; and "cerebro spinal fluid function.

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Its pamphlet on infections and child health states:. When an infection develops, have your child examined by your doctor using applied kinesiology. He can evaluate the energy patterns and usually find the reason that the infection developed in the first place. By correcting the energy patterns within the body and paying specific attention to nutritional supplements and dietary management, the infection which your child using natural health care does develop will be adequately taken care of in most cases [9].

Although the claims of applied kinesiology are so far removed from scientific reality that testing them might seem a waste of time, competent researchers have subjected the muscle-testing procedures to several well-designed controlled tests and demonstrated what should be obvious to rational persons.

Introduction to Kinesiology

Some have found no difference in muscle response from one substance to another, while others have found no difference between the results with test substances and with placebos. One study, for example, found that three practitioners testing eleven subjects made significantly different assessments; their diagnoses of nutritional deficiencies did not correspond to the nutrient levels obtain by blood serum analysis; and that the responses to nutrient substances did not significantly differ from responses to placebos [10].

Another study found no effect from administering the nutrients "expected" to strengthen a muscle diagnosed as "weak" by AK practitioners. Five out of nine did so [13]. Some people who undergo AK muscle-testing report that although they resisted as hard as they could, the practitioner was still able to pull down their arm. Distraction can also play a role.

Touching another part of the body just before pulling down the arm may cause the patient to focus less on resisting.

But trickery deliberate or unconscious may also be a factor. A sudden slight upward movement can cause a "set" muscle to relax so that it can be immediately pulled downward. I have found that when this is done quickly, the person being tested is unlikely to detect the upward motion.

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The International College of Applied Kinesiology ICAK , founded in the mids, has set "standards" based on the work of Goodheart and his followers who allege they have subjected AK to "extensive scientific study. According to ICAK's status statement:. Applied kinesiology procedures are not intended to be used as a single method of diagnosis.

Applied kinesiology examination should enhance standard diagnosis, not replace it. There are both lay persons and professionals who use a form of manual muscle testing without the necessary expertise to perform specific and accurate tests.

Applied Kinesiology: Nonsense on Full Automatic

Some fail to coordinate the muscle testing findings with other standard diagnostic procedures. These may be sources of error that could lead to misinterpretation of the condition present, and thus improper treatment, or failure to treat the appropriate condition [14]. Muscle testing and "meridian" theories are involved in many other treatment systems used mainly by chiropractors:. NOT's proponents claim that "blocked neural pathways" caused by misaligned skull bones can cause learning disorders, cerebral palsy, schizophrenia, Down's syndrome, colorblindness, bedwetting, nightmares, and various other problems.

Its practitioners claim that "adjusting" these bones by applying pressure to various structures of the head can cure these problems. This claim is not only unsubstantiated but clashes with the fact that the bones of the skull are tightly fused by age two.